Sugar diet is one of the methods of disease control in order to prevent the development of acute and chronic complications. The main task of therapeutic measures is the normalization of metabolic processes in the body by optimizing blood sugar levels to the maximum allowable value.
The key to patient well-being is adhering to a diet with a limited amount of carbohydrates and well-chosen drug therapy.
If you do not start treating the disease in time, diabetes mellitus complicates the kidneys, nervous system, blood vessels, eyes, heart.
Etiology and pathogenesis
Today, 4% of the world's population suffers from this disease. According to the WHO, 8640 people with diabetes die every day worldwide, 3 million people die every year. This figure is several times higher than the death rate from hepatitis and AIDS. According to data from the International Diabetes Federation, since 2014, the number of carriers of this disease is 285 million. At the same time, according to the forecast, by 2030. their number could increase to 438 million.
Etiology of the disease:
- hereditary predisposition;
- viral infections (influenza, tonsillitis), as a result of which the islet apparatus is damaged and latent diabetes is formed;
- mental / physical trauma;
- vascular, autoimmune disorders.
External factors contributing to the development of diabetes:
- prolonged mental stress, stress, fear, dread;
- eating foods with an excessive amount of carbohydrates, substances saturated with sugar;
- prolonged overeating.
Symptoms of diabetes in men and women:
- polyuria (an increase in the amount of urine up to 8 l / day);
- weight loss;
- hair loss;
- frequent urination;
- strong thirst;
- decreased lust, power;
- itching of feet, palms, perineum;
- increased appetite;
- wounds do not heal well;
- visual acuity decreases;
- aroma of acetone from the mouth.
If you find signs of a disease, you should immediately consult a doctor, as the effectiveness of diabetes treatment depends directly on the degree to which the first symptoms of the disease are detected, the completion of the diagnosis and the performance of drug therapy. Remember, in the early stages, the disease is more easily treated.
Classification of Diseases and the Role of Nutrition
The main role after drug therapy should be given to the patient's diet.
Types of diets depend on the stage of pancreatic depression, the mechanism of its occurrence and the way of treatment.
Degrees of disease
- Type 1 diabetes is a serious autoimmune disease associated with impaired glucose metabolism. In this case, the pancreas does not produce at all or produces very little insulin needed to maintain the body's vital functions.
- Type 2 diabetes. Often this form of the disease develops in sedentary older people, whose excess body weight exceeds 15% of total weight.
- Gestational diabetes. This type of diabetes mellitus develops in 4% of women during pregnancy, most often in the second trimester. Unlike the first two types of the disease, in most cases it disappears immediately after the birth of the child, however, it can sometimes turn into the second type of diabetes. . . .
The least common forms (variants) of diabetes mellitus that occur in 1% of the world's population are prediabetes, latent, neurogenic, renal, steroids, bronze, MODY.
Types of Diabetes Diet
Insulin injections, hypoglycemic drugs and physical activity are important for achieving positive dynamics in the treatment of the disease. However, according to some doctors (A. Bronstein, E. Malysheva, V. Kononov), proper diet plays a fundamental role.
Types of food programs
- A carb-free diet is a technique based on consuming complex carbohydrates from vegetables, fruits - in large quantities, and excluding foods that contain simple carbohydrates from the menu.
- Protein diet for diabetes. This nutritional scheme is based on the principle of minimizing the consumption of carbohydrates and fats by increasing protein in the diet. The main emphasis in the methodology is the replacement of meat with lean fish, poultry and fermented milk products.
- Low carb diet, used to design menus for type 1 diabetics. 2.
- Buckwheat diet. Regular consumption of this product has a beneficial effect on the body: lowers the level of "bad" cholesterol and saturates it with iron, rutin, calcium, magnesium, fiber, iodine, vitamin B. The buckwheat diet for diabetes helps minimizeof the likelihood of macrovascular complications and ulcers.
- The diabetes prevention diet is designed to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic dysfunction.
With the onset of deterioration of the cardiovascular system and blood vessels, diet 10 is practiced for diabetes mellitus. Its feature is to reduce the consumption of fluids, salt, fats, carbohydrates, as these substances overload the liver, kidneys and irritate the nervous system.
Let us examine in detail what kind of diet is needed for diabetes mellitus, recipes for dishes that are allowed to be consumed during the period of diet food.
When you detect diabetes, it is important to properly balance your intake of carbohydrates and glucose-lowering substances in the body. To calculate the caloric content of products, a universal parameter called the bread unit is used. At the same time, 1 XE (10 - 13 g of pure carbohydrates) raises glucose to 2. 77 mmol / l and "requires" 1. 4 units of insulin to absorb it. Since the injection is given before the start of the meal, it is important to plan a single ration in advance.
Carbohydrate saturation of a meal should be 4-6 bread units. The frequency and timing of meals depends directly on the type of sugar-lowering drug.
Quantity of product compliant with 1XE:
- sugar - 1 tbspl.
- honey - 1 tbsp. l.
- spaghetti - 1. 5 tbspl.
- fruit juices - 150 ml; ice cream
- - 60 g;
- sparkling fresh water - 180 ml;
- bread (rye, white, black) - 25 g;
- pancakes or pancakes - 1 piece; dough
- - 25 g;
- melon - 300 g;
- porridge (oats, buckwheat, wheat) - 2 tbsp. ldrithërat;
- sausage - 200 g;
- kefir, fermented baked milk, milk - 250 ml;
- mashed potatoes - 100 g;
- apples - 100 g;
- legumes (peas, beans) - 5 tbsp. l.
- kiwi - 150 g;
- pear - 90 g;
- orange - 100 g;
- berries - 150 g;
- plum - 100 g;
- peaches - 150 g;
- watermelon - 400 g;
- dried fruits (prunes, raisins, dried apricots) - 20 g.
Carbohydrate saturation of a diabetic's daily diet should not exceed 17 bread units (2000 kcal).
In addition to counting saccharides, it is important that patients with pancreatic dysfunction carefully choose food for a meal based on prohibited and permitted ingredients.
|Product Category||Allowed||Available in
|Bakery products||Disconnected||Wheat, cereals, rye, second class flour products||Confectionery, cakes|
|Meat and Poultry||-||Lean varieties of beef, lamb, chicken, turkey, rabbit, boiled tongue, sausage diet||Fatty pork, beef, goose, duck, canned food, sausage, bacon, smoked sausage|
|First courses||Borscht, cabbage soup, fish soup, soup: mushrooms, fish, beets||Low fat solyanka||Noodle soup, fatty soup, traditional kharço|
|Fish||Filean Lean Fish||Mussels, squid, shrimp, mussels, lobster, salmon (trout, salmon, salmon)||Eel, caviar, canned food, herring (sprat, sprat, herring), lime (star turtle, beluga, lime)|
|Dairy products, fermented milk||Milk, kefir, unsalted cheese 25-30%||Homemade yogurt, 0% milk, feta cheese, 5% cottage cheese, boiled milk, fermented baked milk||Sour cream, 50-60% cheese, salted cheese, glazed cottage cheese, butter, condensed milk, cream|
|Qull||Buckwheat, pearl barley, oatmeal, barley, millet||-||Oatmeal, coffee rice, pasta|
|Vegetables||Carrots, cabbage (all kinds), beets, squash, tomatoes, zucchini, eggplants, onions, turnips, radishes, mushrooms, cucumbers, fresh leafy greens, bell peppers||Corn, boiled potatoes, fresh legumes||French fries, fried vegetables, pickled and salted vegetables|
|Fruits, berries||quince, lemon, cranberry, pear||Plums, apples, peaches, oranges, cherries, cranberries, watermelons, raspberries||Grapes, figs, dates, raisins, bananas|
|desserts||Fruit salads||Sambuca, compote, sweetening foam, fruit jelly, green cocktails with honey (December 1, l. )||Ice cream, cakes, greasy biscuits, cakes, jam, pudding, cakes, milk chocolate with nuts|
|Sauces and spices||Mustard, pepper, horseradish, tomato juice, cinnamon, dried spices and herbs||Homemade mayonnaise||Ketchups, sautéed vegetables, purchased sauces|
|Drink||Tea, cocoa, ground coffee (without sugar and cream), rose and raspberry decoction, unsweetened fruit nectars, sour berry fruit drinks||Natural vegetable juices (diluted)||Sugar lemonades, kvass, sweet drinks, alcohol|
|Yndyrnat||-||Vegetable oils (flaxseed, corn, sunflower), unsalted butter||Pork fat, meat fats|
After converting carbohydrates into bread units, it is important to determine the amount of insulin that will be required to use blood sugar after eating. Following this recommendation will help to avoid life-threatening conditions - hyper and hypoglycemia.
Diet for grade 1 diabetes
The type 1 diabetes diet is based on strict control of blood glucose concentration at the level (3. 5… 5. 5 mmol / l).
Consider food intake features, allowing you to keep its level within defined limits.
- The maximum daily calorie content of dishes (total per day) is 2000 kcal.
- Fractional food (at least 5 times).
- Eliminate pure sucrose from the menu to lower blood glucose.
- Distribute the main dose of carbohydrates for breakfast and lunch.
- Do not eat at night.
- Avoid taking easily digestible carbohydrates: baked goods, honey, jam, canned food.
- Use a natural sweetener as a sweetener.
- To monitor the quality, "naturalness" of products.
- Adjust your insulin therapy schedule for meals (one long-acting medicine is administered before meals, one short-acting - after meals).
- Calculate the number of bread units to calculate the amount of carbohydrates eaten per day. For one meal, you should not eat more than 8 XE.
In the presence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (pancreatitis, ulcers, gastritis), the diet for diabetes mellitus stops taking products such as: pickles, smoked meats, rich soups, coffee, carbonated beverages, alcohol, mushrooms, canned foods that stimulate the excess secretion of enzymes, because they affect the speed and level of absorption of carbohydrates.
Allowed Foods for Type 1 Diabetes:
- yeast-free baked goods;
- berries, fruits (plum, cherry, lemon, apple, pear, orange);
- soy products (tofu, milk);
- cereals (pearl barley, oatmeal, buckwheat porridge); Vegetarian puree soups
- ; drinks
- (slightly carbonated mineral water, blackberry mousses, dried fruit compotes);
- vegetables (onions, zucchini, peppers, beets, carrots);
- nuts (not roasted);
- weak coffee, unsweetened green / black / fruit teas.
- rich soups, soups;
- pasta, flour products; sweets
- (cakes, pastries, cakes, chocolate, muffins);
- fast food, semi-finished products;
- alcoholic beverages (it is strictly forbidden to consume red dessert wine);
- sour, smoked, spicy foods;
- fatty meats (pork, lamb, duck), fish (mackerel).
The daily caloric intake of an obese patient on this diet with insulin is in the range of 1200-1400 kcal. In the absence of the need to get rid of excess pounds, portions of the dishes can be increased.
One week diet for insulin dependent overweight
Day # 1
- breakfast - bread - 1 slice, porridge - 170 g, green tea, cheese - 40 g;
- second breakfast - pear - 0, 5 pieces, fresh cheese - 60 g;
- lunch - borscht - 250 g, boiled cabbage - 200 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, steamed kitten - 100 g, lavash;
- afternoon tea - rose soup, cottage cheese - 100 g, fruit jelly - 100 g;
- dinner - zrazy cauliflower - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g;
- before bed - milk - 200 ml.
Day # 2
- breakfast - boiled beef - 50 g, green tea, omelette, tomatoes - 1 piece, bread - 1 slice;
- second breakfast - grapefruit or orange - 1 piece, pistachio - 50 g;
- lunch - chicken breast - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, pumpkin porridge - 150 g;
- afternoon tea - grapefruit - 1 piece, kefir - 200 ml. ;
- dinner - boiled fish - 100 g, boiled cabbage - 200 g;
- Bedtime - Unsweetened crack - 50g
Day # 3
- breakfast - lavash, light coffee without sugar, cabbage rolls with meat - 200 g;
- second breakfast - strawberries - 120 g, yogurt - 200 ml;
- lunch - pasta - 100 g, vegetable salad - 100 g, steamed fish - 100 g;
- afternoon tea - orange - 1 piece, decoction with dried fruits;
- dinner - casserole with pears - 250 g;
- before bed - kefir.
- breakfast - porridge - 200 g, green tea, cheese - 70 g boiled eggs - 1 piece;
- second breakfast - toast with cheese, turkey fillet;
- lunch - zucchini boiled with meat - 200 g, soup with vegetarian puree - 150 g, bread - 2 pieces;
- afternoon tea - lean biscuits - 15 g, unsweetened black tea;
- dinner - green beans - 200 g, boiled chicken fillets - 150 g, rose soup;
- before bed - dry diet bread - 3 pieces.
Day # 5
- breakfast - low-fat cottage cheese (up to 5%) - 150 g, kefir - 200 ml;
- second breakfast - pumpkin seeds - 2 tablespoons, raisins - 3 tablespoons;
- lunch - baked potatoes - 100 g, vegetable salad - 150 g, sugar-free compote - 100 g;
- afternoon snack - tea with unsweetened fruit, roasted pumpkin - 150 g;
- dinner - vegetable salad - 200 g, steamed kitten - 100 g or cranberry pancakes in rye flour - 250 g;
- before bed - kefir 1%.
- breakfast - boiled egg - 1 piece, fruit tea, lightly salted salmon - 30 g;
- second breakfast - cottage cheese - 150 g, carrots - 1 piece;
- lunch - green borscht - 250 g, cabbage rolls with brown rice and carrots - 170 g; pita;
- afternoon snack - kefir - 150 ml. , bread - 2 pieces;
- dinner - fresh peas - 100 g, boiled chicken fillet - 100 g, boiled eggplant - 150 g;
- at bedtime - dry crackers - 50 g.
- breakfast - bacon - 50 g, buckwheat porridge - 200 g, green tea;
- second breakfast - tuna salad, cucumber, cherry tomatoes, rye bread - 150 g;
- lunch - zucchini with carrots - 100 g, cabbage soup - 250 g, bread - 1 slice, chicken kitten - 50 g;
- afternoon tea - cottage cheese - 100 g, apricots or plums - 4 pieces;
- dinner - squid schnitzel with onions - 150 g, compote with dried fruits;
- before bed - milk - 200 ml.
Low carb diet for diabetes is a strictly balanced diet for the patient to keep sugar within the normal range and systematic weight loss.
Type 2 Diabetes Diet
Basics of Health Food Diet:
- replace refined carbohydrates with sweeteners;
- UDP ratio should be 20%: 30%: 50%;
- reduce the consumption of animal fats by up to 50%;
The calorie content of the daily diet depends on the patient's energy consumption and body weight.
Diabetes Diet 9 or Table 9 is a balanced program for diabetics with mild to moderate moderate obesity. Adhering to it, the patient's diet consists of: protein (100 g. ), Carbohydrates (320 g. ), Fats (80 g. ), Of which 30% are unsaturated triglycerides.
The type 2 diabetes diet is almost identical to the nutrition program for people who monitor their health:
- divide the entire volume of daily food into 5 meals: 2 meals in 1-2XE, 3 main meals in 5-8XE;
- do not skip breakfast;
- maximum rest between meals - 4 hours;
- last meal in the evening - 1. 5 hours before bedtime;
- between meals it is recommended to eat vegetable salads, fruits, freshly squeezed juices, soup with dried fruits, kefir, milk, green or fruit tea, unsweetened biscuits, bread.
Daily diet for type 2 diabetes
Day # 1
- breakfast - asparagus - 100 gr. , scrambled eggs by 3-4 quail eggs;
- second breakfast - salad with nuts, squid, apples - 200 g;
- lunch - roasted eggplants stuffed with pomegranate, nuts - 100 g, beets - 250 g;
- afternoon tea - ice cream with avocado and cocoa - 100 g;
- Dinner - salmon steak with radish sauce - 200 g
Day # 2
- breakfast - yogurt, rolled oats - 200 g (you can use stevia nectar or agave as a sweetener), apples - 1 piece;
- second breakfast - fruit smoothie (grind in a blender 80 g each cherry, strawberry, melon and 4 ice cubes);
- lunch - roast beef - 150 g, vegetable stew - 200 g;
- afternoon snack - cottage cheese and pear casserole - 150 g;
- dinner - vegetable mixture - 200 g, avocado - half fruit.
Day # 3
- breakfast - fried eggs from two eggs with the addition of low-fat cheese, basil, tomatoes;
- second breakfast - "steamed" vegetables - 100 g, humus - 100 g;
- lunch - soup with vegetarian puree - 200 g, green peas - 50 g chicken cutlets - 150 g;
- afternoon tea - pear - 1 piece, almonds - 50 g;
- Dinner - salmon - 150 g, yogurt, spinach.
- breakfast - ripe fruits (apples, plums, cherries) in agave nectar - 200 g;
- second breakfast - tuna and lettuce sandwich;
- lunch - beef steak - 150 g, boiled cauliflower - 200 g, salad with tomatoes, arugula, parmesan - 100 g;
- afternoon snack - fruit and berry dessert (cut mango, kiwi, strawberry, combine with snow, pour orange juice and freeze) - 150 g;
- dinner - broccoli rolls - 200 g.
Day # 5
- breakfast - oranges - 1 piece; fruit tea, low-fat cheese - 30 g, bread - 2 pieces;
- second breakfast - beet salad with nuts - 200 g;
- lunch - rice - 200 g, salmon, steamed - 150 g, grapefruit - 1 piece;
- afternoon tea - berries with whipped cream 10% - 150 g;
- dinner - rose soup, squid schnitzel with onion - 200 g.
- breakfast - soufflés with carrots and cottage cheese - 200 g;
- second breakfast - zrazy cauliflower - 100 g;
- lunch - tangerine salad, chicken breast, arugula - 200 g, compote with dried fruits, vegetable broth - 200 ml;
- afternoon tea - kiwi, raspberry mousse - 200 ml. ;
- dinner - steamed cod with carrots - 200 g, kefir.
- breakfast - ripe apples stuffed with oat flakes, nuts, raisins - 1 piece;
- second breakfast - salad with kohlrabi fruits and vegetables, celery, pears - 200 g, shrimp - 100 g;
- lunch - polenta - 200 g, greens, boiled hake - 200 g, kiwi - 1 piece;
- afternoon tea - strawberries with mascarpone - 100 g;
- dinner - cucumber salad with onion, spinach - 250 g, green tea.
Depending on the course of the disease, changes can be made to the patient menu.
Remember, the above diet example is not a universal nutritional system for all diabetics, so it is important to monitor your well-being while following it. In case of its deterioration, "problematic" foods should be excluded from the menu.
Gestational Diabetes Diet
In some cases, pancreatic dysfunction in the body of the expectant mother, and as a result, gestational diabetes develops. In most cases, this condition is easy to control with proper nutrition.
Diabetes diet during pregnancy
- Eliminate sugar, sweets, baked goods, oatmeal, sweet fruits, foods that contain sweeteners from the diet.
- Balance the daily menu. Daily intake of carbohydrates is 50%, protein - 30%, fats - 15-20%. At the same time, Malysheva diet for diabetes provides for minimization of the amount of food intake, which contains plant and animal triglycerides (5-10%).
- Observe the drinking regime - 1, 5-2 liters of water per day.
- Enrich your daily diet with starch (cereals, rye bread, brown rice, legumes, sweet potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke, radish, beets) and fermented milk products.
- Snack on fresh fruit.
- Divide your daily food intake into 3 main meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) and 2 meals (lunch, afternoon snack).
- Enrich your daily diet with multivitamin complexes for pregnant women.
- Reduce sugar with folk remedies using decoction of celery roots, linden flowers, cranberry leaves, lilac buds, bean beans.
- Limit caffeine intake. The allowed amount of alkaloids is 2 servings of coffee or tea.
The optimal daily calorie intake of a pregnant woman is 2000 - 2500 kcal. At the same time, a carbohydrate-free diet for gestational diabetes is prohibited.
Recommended menu for expectant mothers with high blood glucose
- breakfast - millet porridge - 150 g, fruit tea, rye bread - 20 g;
- second breakfast - dry grain bun - 50 g, unsalted cheese 17% - 20 g, apple - 1 piece;
- lunch - buckwheat porridge - 100 g, a mixture of cabbage, artichoke from Jerusalem, cucumbers - 150 g, beef stew - 70 g;
- afternoon tea - 5% cottage cheese - 100 g, unsweetened shredder - 2 pieces, oranges - 1 piece;
- dinner - boiled chicken fillet - 60 g, vegetable garnish (carrots, cabbage, peppers) - 100 g, tomato juice - 180 ml, bread - 2 pieces;
- 3 hours before bedtime - kefir / yogurt - 200 ml.
In addition to following a special diet, patients with gestational diabetes are shown walking (40 minutes a day) and moderate physical activity (gymnastics, water exercise).
Diet for insulin-dependent diabetes in children
Diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence is much more difficult to perform than in adults. The genetic predisposition of the child, stress and poor nutrition are the main causes of the development of autoimmune disease.
In 80% of cases, children are diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes (type 1). Early diagnosis, immediate treatment and strict adherence to a special diet will help prevent the consequences of the disease.
Diabetes diet in children
- Exclude from the menu sugar, soda, sweets, whole wheat bread products, fried foods, baked goods.
- Enrich your daily menu with unsweetened (unlimited) fruits, vegetables and herbs. Prohibited - grapes, bananas, raisins, dates, persimmons, figs.
- Use natural sugar substitutes.
- Divide your daily food intake into 6 meals. At the same time, it is important to eat food at regular intervals. Permissible deviations in the feeding schedule of the child are 15-20 minutes.
- Food should be taken after 15 minutes. after insulin administration and 2 hours after injection.
- If you can not eat at the right time, you can eat bread, pear, nuts, cheese or apple sandwich as a snack. Under no circumstances should you starve to death.
- Getting a bar of chocolate immediately will help stop hypoglycemic attacks. Therefore, an adult accompanying a child should always have a sweet product available.
- Enrich your baby's daily diet with fermented milk products.
- Calculate your daily fructose intake. The amount of sugar substitute depends directly on the age of the child and the nature of the course of the disease.
To lower blood glucose, it is advisable for a child to give a decoction of cranberries, nettles, corn stalks, mint leaves, barberry branches, bean pods, Jerusalem artichoke fruit, ginseng and eleutherococcus.
Thus, the diet for patients with diabetes plays an important role, as the well-being and life of the patient depends on the correctness of its composition. Therefore, it is important to take very seriously and carefully the design of the diet and its observance, otherwise negligence can lead to tragic consequences.